The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used in folk (herbal) medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases and conditions that include asthma, diarrhoea and dyslipidaemia. This article reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of N. sativa and its constituents. The seeds contain both fixed and essential oils, proteins, alkaloids and saponin. Much of the biological activity of the seeds has been shown to be due to thymoquinone, the major component of the essential oil, but which is also present in the fi ed oil. The pharmacological actions of the crude extracts of the seeds (and some of its active constituents, e.g. volatile oil and thymoquinone) that have been reported include protection against nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by either disease or chemicals. The seeds/oil have antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial and antineoplastic activity. The oil decreases blood pressure and increases respiration. Treatment of rats with the seed extract for up to 12 weeks has been reported to induce changes in the haemogram that include an increase in both the packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb), and a decrease in plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. The seeds are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. Two cases of contact dermatitis in two individuals have been reported following topical use. Administration of either the seed extract or its oil has been shown not to induce significant adverse effects on liver or kidney functions. It would appear that the beneficial effects of the use of the seeds and thymoquinone might be related to their cytoprotective and antioxidant actions, and to their effect on some mediators of inflammation.

Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
According to Zohary and Hopf, archaeological evidence about the earliest cultivation of N. sativa "is still scanty", but they report supposed N. sativa seeds have been found in several sites from ancient Egypt, including Tutankhamun's tomb.[6] Although its exact role in Egyptian culture is unknown, it is known that items entombed with a pharaoh were carefully selected to assist him in the afterlife.
In the Unani Tibb system of medicine, black cumin (Carum bulbocastanum) is regarded as a valuable remedy for a number of diseases.  In Islamic writing, a hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah says "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'There is healing in black seed (al-h.abbah al-sawda-?) for all diseases except death.'"

Nestlé has reportedly filed a patent application covering use of N. sativa as a food allergy treatment. Yet the firm denies the claim of patenting the plant, stating that the patent would only cover "the specific way that thymoquinone - a compound that can be extracted from the seed of the fennel flower - interacts with opioid receptors in the body and helps to reduce allergic reactions to food".
A Few References From Pubmed.gov on Black Cumin Seed Benefits
Thymoquinone Induces Cell Death in Human Squamous Carcinoma Cells
Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer
Composition, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and oleoresins obtained from black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.).
A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women.
Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects
The Effects of 8-week Nigella sativa Supplementation and Aerobic Training on Lipid Profile and VO2 max in Sedentary Overweight Females
Nigella sativa Fixed and Essential Oil Supplementation Modulates Hyperglycemia and Allied Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus.
Anti-inflammatuar and anti-oxidative effects of Nigella sativa
Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.
Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males.
Antidiabetic oils.
The clinical outcome of adjuvant therapy with black seed oil on intractable paediatric seizures:
An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols.
Black cumin seed essential oil, as a potent analgesic and antiinflammatory drug.
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