THE SECRET TO THE SCIENCES
Well It's Really Quite Simple. You'll Find Everything You Need, Packed In The Seed.

It's in the seeds! Through the process of natural selection, plant species have honed and perfected its "fruit" as a powerful defense against the harsh oxidative conditions of its environment, primarily the powerful radioactive light of the sun which, without the protection of antioxidants would destroy the vital seed DNA, the key to its continued survival.

Many antioxidant products on the market today have concentrated on the fruit itself in the forms of juices or purees while certainly beneficial for the body, the fruit's pulp, by its sheer volume, is like the defending army which slows and absorbs invaders that are able to get through the initial defense barriers and castle walls. The thick walls of the husk contain and surround dense, antioxidant filled pulp and oils that feed and protect the vital DNA held within. In fact, the seeds contains 40 times more antioxidant potency than the surrounding fruit tissues. Seeds are in fact nature's antioxidant powerhouse.

Soul is NOT the next juice, puree, or exotic berry from a remote location. Soul starts with the foundation that these products never consider: the seeds. And, it's not just any seed. Soul employs ingredients derived from cold pressed process that removes the nutrient-rich oils and flowers from botanical seeds without altering their chemical composition. The result: powerful antioxidants and Essential Fatty Acids that help the body maintain balance and avoid today's most pressing health issues. Give your soul what it needs....Soul!

Benefits Of Soul

    Derived from life's source, the seed. Soul energize your cells and tissues to maintain strength and vitality.

    Synergistically combined seeds of Black Cumin and Black Raspberry to provide an exponentially stronger barrier of protection against the harmful effects of oxidative stress.

    Phytonutrients carefully derived through a cold pressed process that preserves fragile plant enzymes and properties your body requires for your active and demanding lifestyle.

The nutrients in one packet is comparable to 8 to 10 servings of fruit, 8 to 10 servings of vegetables and 2 to 3 servings of healthy fats. The seeds are backed by over 200 scientific research studies with 6 worldwide patents for the black cumin seed.

Inflammation, free-radical damage, and an overall lack of essential fatty acids in our diets are three of the greatest threats to our health today. In one simple 2oz. shot we give you SOUL, a small, but very powerful supplement helping improve your overall health and longevity from the inside out.

The Low-Down of Our Science

Science has done amazing things for nutrition in just the last five years. And really, who wouldn’t want to dramatically increase the energy, lower lipids, and cut painful recovery time from infections and other ailments in half? We all want better health and better nutrition. It’s those wants that have pushed us to continue to research how we can keep improving our health.

The nutritive approach is not new. Old-time visionaries embraced it. Heck, way back in 390 B.C. Hippocrates said, “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food.” Edison, you know, the guy who invented the light bulb, said, “The doctor of the future will give no medicine but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, diet, and the cause and prevention of disease.” Genius, freaking genius! Even the guru of chemistry himself, Dr. Linus Pauling, stated that by giving the body the right ortho-molecules, most disease would be eradicated.

Positive health, or “functional health” in layman’s terms, can be measured in three simple ways:

1. Performance—how one performs physically and mentally
2. Absence of ill health—lack of disease signs and symptoms
3. Longevity—healthy life span

Instead of thinking of the body as a machine that needs fixing, we first need to see the human body as complex adaptive systems. But unfortunately, everyone’s adaptive systems are not made equal. Some people have “good genes” and others don’t, but everyone’s health is a result of how well their body adapts to the environment. When someone’s environment gets the best of them with stress, bad diet, pollution, exposure to viruses, allergens, and so on, their body can’t adapt any more and they get sick. Not fun.

But thanks to the products from Rain International, you can start combating that nasty environment of yours and take your health into your own hands. To date, 50 nutrients have been identified as being essential for good health. We know that the thought of even attempting to consume all 50 nutrients in one day can be overwhelming, which is why here at Rain International, we’ve made it easy for you.

Over the course of time, almost every cell in your body is rebuilt and rejuvenated.
Why not rebuild your body with the best building blocks available?

Rain International provides some of the most essential nutrients in our products. Through simple daily use and basic healthy changes in your lifestyle, you can transform your health profile and achieve a healthier you!

Cold Pressed Extraction Process of Botanic Seeds

The cold extraction process of botanic seeds separates lipids from seed fiber. The lipids are complex with phytosteroids, essential fatty acids, diverse antioxidants, phospholipids, and dissolved minerals. In addition, the fiber contains diverse water-soluble antioxidant compounds. This process is pure and nature fresh. Studies have demonstrated that these substances produced by this cold pressed extraction process under anaerobic conditions have a much higher concentration than those produced by heat process with additives. Heat degenerates the antioxidants and thus creates loss of substance. Additives add to the impurities of these compounds. Moreover, by combining cold pressed antioxidants, synergy occurs with a much higher concentration than its’ weighted average and higher than its’ heat produced counterparts. Thus, healthier natural cold processing of these botanic seeds gives patients a better chance to support the health attributes of these substances.

Facts

Ingredients

Research

The black cumin seed has been around for a long time… and we mean a really long time. For more than 3000 years, society has raved about its wide range of healing abilities that were recognized by everyone from the Egyptians to Mohammed.

It’s no wonder that the founder of Islam regarded this amazing little seed as the most powerful healing substance available!

We’ve only tapped the surface of the shell of benefits encapsulating this amazing seed. Modern science is just now realizing the complex host of antioxidants and positive organic compounds that make this little seed such a nutritional powerhouse. In fact, scientists have found concentrations of a host of active plant sterols including the antitumor sterol, beta-sitosterol.

Besides all those hard-to-pronounce ingredients, research also shows that black cumin seeds are loaded with Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids (yes, this fat is good for you), which are known for supporting and repairing cell membranes.

But most importantly, Rain International is able to extract all the good stuff from botanical black cumin seeds without harming them in the process. Our cold-press process extracts all the nutrient rich oils and flours intact so you can get all the benefits. Many other companies use harsh chemical solvents and high temperatures to obtain less-than-effective ingredients from their organic products. Because of that, Rain International takes great care in ensuring that our extraction process is certified organic and chemical free.

Cold-pressed black raspberry seeds and oil were analyzed for their fatty acid contents and antioxidant properties. The oil contained about 35%?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and 55% to 58% linoleic acid. They exhibited strong free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS’+) radicals and had a total phenolic content (TPC) of 46 mg gallic acid equivalent/g meal. The ABTS+ scavenging capacity and TPC of the meal were 300 and 290 times greater than that of the oil. In addition, the oil stability iodine value, and color were examined. The results from this study suggest the possible food application of black raspberry seed and its fractions in improving human nutrition and potential value-adding opportunities in black raspberry production and processing.

Additional Research

Research on Black Seed is numerous and very wide. Many research papers, references and published reports could be found in large number of data bases. To name a few databases where Black Seed research data is available :- Agricola, Medliner, Napralert etc., For more information you may visit these sites directly. Given below are some of the research data widely available.

Abdel, F. A. F. M., K. Matsumoto, et al. (2000). Antinociceptive effects of Nigella sativa oil and its major component, thymoquinone, in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology. [print] 400(1): 89-97. {a} Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan

Akova, A. and G. Ustun (2000). Activity and adsorption of lipase from Nigella sativa seeds on Celite at different pH values. Biotechnology Letters. March 22(5): 355-359. {a} Chemical Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, 80626, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Badary, O. A., N. A. B. Abdel, et al. (2000). The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Toxicology . march 143(3): 219-226. {a} Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

El, D. M., M. Barakat, et al. (2000). Effects of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. [print] September 72(1-2): 299-304. {a} Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

El, D. M., N. I. Mady, et al. (2000). Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittel Forschung. [print] Sept 50(9): 832-836. {a} Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Drug Toxicology, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21521, Egypt

Morsi, N. M. (2000). Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Acta Microbiologica Polonica. [print] 49(1): 63-74. {a} Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Salem, M. L. and M. S. Hossain (2000). Protective effect of Black Seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection. International Journal of Immunopharmacology. [print] September 22(9): 729-740. {a} Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Swamy, S. M. K. and B. K. H. Tan (2000). Cytotoxic and immunopotentiating effects of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. April 70(1): 1-7. {a} Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore, 119260, Singapore

Zaoui, A., Y. Cherrah, et al. (2000). Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa on the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Therapie London. [print] Mai Juin 55(3): 379-382. {a} Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie, Faculte de Medecine et Pharmacie de Rabat, Universite Med V, Rabat, Morocco

Badary, O. A. (1999). Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Nov. 67(2): 135-142. {a} Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Bhutada, S. G. (1999). Effect of herbal antistressor AV/ASE/14 and galactagogue Payapro on milk production in buffaloes during summer. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal. June 23(2): 135-136. {a} Sawargaon (P),Tq. Mukhed, Dist. Nanded, 431 716 (M.S.), India

Bourarach, K., S. Hannin, et al. (1999). Insecticidal activity of Smyrnium olusatrum, Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum against Rizopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae. Revue de Medecines et Pharmacopees Africaines. [print] 13: 1-9. {a} Departement de Zoologie, Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, Rabat-Instituts, Rabat, Morocco

Ghosheh, O. A., A. A. Houdi, et al. (1999). High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. April 19(5): 757-762. {a} Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA

Khan, M. A. (1999). Chemical composition and medicinal properties of Nigella sativa Linn. Inflammopharmacology 7(1): 15-35. {a} Division of Chemistry, School of Science, Sheffield Hallam University, Pond Street, Sheffield, S11WB, UK

Mehta, B. K., N. Singh, et al. (1999). Anti-implantation activity in Artabotrys odoratissimus leaf and Nigella sativa seed extracts. Biological Memoirs. June 25(1): 38-39. {a} School of Studies in Chemistry, Vikram University, Ujjain, 456 010, India

Mitra, P. K. and G. Bhowmik (1999). Estimation of mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical and chemical mutagens in Nigella sativa L. Advances in Plant Sciences. Dec. 12(2): 373-378. {a} Dept. of Botany, North Lakhimpur College, North Lakhimpur, AS, 787031, India

Mouhajir, F., J. A. Pedersen, et al. (1999). Antimicrobial thymohydroquinones of Moroccan Nigella sativa seeds detected by electron spin resonance. Pharmaceutical Biology. Dec. 37(5): 391-395. {a} Botany Department, U.B.C., Vancouver, V6T 1Z4, Canada

Nagi, M. N., K. Alam, et al. (1999). Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 47(1): 153-159. {a} Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia

Al, G. A. M. A. (1998). Amino acid composition and biological effects of supplementing broad bean and corn proteins with Nigella sativa (black cumin) cake protein. Nahrung 42(5): 290-294. {a} Zagazig Univ., Fac. Agric., Biochem. Dep., ET-Zagazig, Egypt

Badary, O. A., S. O. A. Al, et al. (1998). Acute and subchronic toxicity of thymoquinone in mice. Drug Development Research 44(2-3): 56-61. {a} Dep. Pharmacology, Coll. Pharmacy, King Saud Univ., P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Daba, M. H. and R. M. S. Abdel (1998). Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicology Letters Shannon 95(1): 23-29. {a} Univ. Med. Dent. New Jersey, New Jersey Med. Sch., Room I-655, 185 S. Orange Ave., Newark, NJ 07103-2714, USA

El, K. H. H., A. H. Ahmed, et al. (1998). Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Nigella sativa seeds, Cymbopogon citratus leaves and Pulicaria undulata aerial parts. Fitoterapia 69(1): 77-78. {a} Dep. Bot., Fac. Sci., Omdurman Islamic Univ., P.O. Box 382, Omdurman, Sudan

El, N., L. Dandik, et al. (1998). Solvent-free glycerolysis catalyzed by acetone powder of Nigella sativa seed lipase. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 75(9): 1207-1211. {a} Istanbul Technical Univ., Fac. Chem.-Metallurgy, Chemical Eng. Dep., 80626 Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey

Rang, S. and A. K. Datta (1998). A male sterile mutant with desynaptic behaviour of chromosomes in Nigella sativa L. Journal of Phytological Research 11(2): 91-94. {a} Botany Department, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, India

Takruri, H. R. H. and M. A. F. Dameh (1998). Study of the nutritional value of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 76(3): 404-410. {a} Dep. Nutr. Food Technol., Fac. Agric., Univ. Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Worthern, D. R., O. A. Ghosheh, et al. (1998). The in vitro anti-tumor activity of some crude and purified components of blackseed, Nigella sativa L. Anticancer Research 18(3a): 1527-1532. {a} Div. Med. Chem. Pharm., Coll. Pharm., University Ky., Rose St., Lexington, KY 40536, USA

Youssef, A. A., M. R. Rady, et al. (1998). Growth and some primary products in callus cultures of Nigella sativa as influenced by various cultural conditions and salt stress. Fitoterapia 69(4): 329-336. {a} Hortic. Dep., Natl. Res. Cent., El-Tahrir St., P.O. Box 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Al, O. S. Y., N. M. Ammar, et al. (1997). Studies of some biochemical, nutritional and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seeds. Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 38(4-6): 451-469. {a} Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

El, M. M. M., G. A. M. Abdel, et al. (1997). Prevention of skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mice by Black Seed oil. Oncology Reports 4(1): 139-141. {a} Dep. Zool., Fac. Sci., Univ. Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Hussain, H. and R. S. Tobji (1997). Antibacterial screening of some Libyan medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 68(5): 467-470. {a} Chem. Dep., Coll. Sci., Univ. Mu’tah, Mu’tah, Alkarak, P.O. Box 7, Jordan

Merfort, I., V. Wray, et al. (1997). Flavonol triglycosides from seeds of Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry Oxford 46(2): 359-363. {a} Inst. Pharmazeutische Biol., Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany

Akhtar, A. H., K. D. Ahmad, et al. (1996). Antiulcer effects of aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa and Pongamia pinnata in rats. Fitoterapia 67(3): 195-199. {a} P.C.S.I.R. Laboratories, Peshawar, Pakistan

Aqel, M. and R. Shaheen (1996). Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52(1): 23-26. {a} College Med., University Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Bashandy, S. A. E. (1996). Effect of Nigella sativa oil on liver and kidney functions of adult and senile rats. Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 37(1-6): 313-327. Pharmacol. Dep., Natl. Res. Cent., Cairo, Egypt

Dandik, L. and H. A. Aksoy (1996). Applications of Nigella sativa seed lipase in oleochemical reactions. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 19(4): 277-281. {a} Dep. Chem. Eng., Istanbul Technical Univ., Fac. Chem. and Metallurgy, 80626 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

El, S. O. A. and S. A. Nada (1996). Biological evaluation of multicomponent tea used as hypoglycemic in rats. Fitoterapia 67(2): 99-102. Dep. Pharmacol., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Abou, B. L. I., M. S. Rashed, et al. (1995). TLC assay of thymoquinone in Black Seed oil (Nigella sativa Linn) and identification of dithymoquinone and thymol. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 18(1): 105-115. {a} Bioanalytical and Drug Dev. Lab., Biol. and Med. Res. Dep., King Faisal Specialist Hosp. and Res. Centre, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia

Aboul, E. H. Y. and B. L. I. Abou (1995). Simple HPLC method for the determination of thymoquinone in Black Seed oil (Nigella sativa Linn). Journal of Liquid Chromatography 18(5): 895-902. {a} Bioanal. Drug Dev. Lab., Biol. Med. Res. Dep., King Faisal Specialist Hosp. Res. Cent., PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia

Atta, U. R. S. M., S. S. Hasan, et al. (1995). Nigellidine: A new indazole alkaloid from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Letters 36(12): 1993-1996. {a} H. E. J. Res. Inst. Chem., Univ. Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

Hailat, N., Z. Bataineh, et al. (1995). Effect of Nigella sativa Volatile Oil on Jurkat T Cell Leukemia Polypeptides. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33(1): 16-20. {a} Clin. Vet. Sci., Fac. Vet. Med., Jordan Univ. Sci. Technol., Irbid, Jordan

Haq, A., M. Abdullatif, et al. (1995). Nigella sativa: Effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Immunopharmacology 30(2): 147-155. {a} Dep. Biol. Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia

Houghton, P. J., R. Zarka, et al. (1995). Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Medica 61(1): 33-36. {a} Pharmocognosy Res. Lab., Dep. Pharmacy, King’s Coll. London, Manresa Road, London SW3 6LX, UK

Keshri, G., M. M. Singh, et al. (1995). Post-Coital Contraceptive Efficacy Of The Seeds Of Nigella sativa In Rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 39(1): 59-62. {a} Div. Endocrinol., Central Drug Res. Inst., Lucknow 227 001, India

Mert, S., L. Dandik, et al. (1995). Production of glycerides from glycerol and fatty acids by native lipase of Nigella sativa seed. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 50(3): 333-342. {a} Istanbul Tech. Univ., Fac. Chem.-Metallurgy, Chem. Eng. Dep., 80626 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Al, H. A., M. Aqel, et al. (1993). Hypoglycemic effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 31(2): 96-100. {a} Dep. Physiol., Fac. Med., Jordan Univ. Sci. and Technol., P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan

Aqel, M. B. (1993). Effects of Nigella sativa seeds on intestinal smooth muscle. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 31(1): 55-60. Coll. Med., Univ. Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Barjat, H., P. S. Belton, et al. (1993). Rapid scan correlation NMR spectroscopy for food analysis. Food Chemistry 48(3): 307-312. {a} AFRC Inst. Food Res., Norwich Lab., Norwich Res. Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK

Bhakare, H. A., A. S. Kulkarni, et al. (1993). Lipid composition of some seeds of central India. Journal of Food Science and Technology 30(1): 54-55. {a} Dep. Oil Technology, Laxminarayan Inst. Technology, Nagpur Univ., Nagpur-440 010, India

Dandik, L., G. Arioglu, et al. (1993). The enzymatic hydrolysis of used frying oil by native lipase. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 42(2-3): 119-126. {a} Istanbul Technical Univ., Fac. Chem.-Metallurgy, Chem. Eng. Dep., 80626 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

El, T. K. E. H., M. M. S. Ashour, et al. (1993). The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the Black Seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea pigs: Elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. General Pharmacology 24(5): 1115-1122. {a} Dep. Pharmacol., College Pharmacy, King Saud University, PO Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

El, T. K. E. H., M. M. S. Ashour, et al. (1993). The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the Black Seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: Elucidation of the mechanism of action. General Pharmacology 24(5): 1123-1131. {a} Dep. Pharmacol., College Pharmacy, King Saud University, PO box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Grover, G. J., S. Dzwonczyk, et al. (1993). The endothelin-1 receptor antagonist BQ-123 reduces infarct size in a canine model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion. Cardiovascular Research 27(9): 1613-1618. {a} Dep. Pharmacol., Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Inst., P.O. Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000, USA

Kasonia, K., M. Ansay, et al. (1993). Plants used in ethnomedicine for asthma in Kivu (Zaire). Belgian Journal of Botany 126(1): 20-28. {a} Universite Lubumbashi, l’Universite Liege, Fac. Medecine Veterinaire, Pharmacologie Toxicologie, B-41 Bld. de Colonster, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgique

Khanna, T., F. A. Zaidi, et al. (1993). CNS and analgesic studies on Nigella sativa. Fitoterapia 64(5): 407-410. Dep. Pharmacology, Faculty Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi-110062, India

Mohiuddin, S., R. A. Qureshi, et al. (1993). Laboratory evaluation of some vegetable oils as protectants of stored products. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 36(9): 377-379. PCSIR Lab. Complex, Karachi-75280, Pakistan

Nergiz, C. and S. Otles (1993). Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Food Chemistry 48(3): 259-261. Food Eng. Dep., Eng. Fac., Ege Univ., 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey

Ramage, L., A. L. Blair, et al. (1993). Effect of salmeterol on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) chemiluminescence in vitro. Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence 8(5): 247-252. {a} Dep. Pathol, Univ. Dundee, Ninewells Hosp. Med. Sch., Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland

Watanabe, K., S. Yano, et al. (1993). Comparative effects of cimetidine and famotidine on the vagally stimulated acid secretion in the isolated mouse whole stomach. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 61(3): 229-236. {a} Lab. Chem. Pharmacol., Dep. Drug Eval. Toxicol. Sci., Fac. Pharm. Sci., Chiba Univ., 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263, Japan

Al, J. M. S. (1992). Chemical composition and microflora of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds growing in Saudi Arabia. Food Chemistry 45(4): 239-242.

Dandik, L. and H. A. Aksoy (1992). The kinetics of hydrolysis of Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed oil catalyzed by native lipase in ground seed. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 69(12): 1239-1241. {a} Istanbul Technical Univ., Fac. Chemistry-Metallurgy, Chemical Eng. Dep., 80626 Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey

Rahman, A. U., S. Malik, et al. (1992). Nigellimine: A new isoquinoline alkaloid from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Journal Of Natural Products 55(5): 676-678

Salomi, N. J., S. C. Nair, et al. (1992). Antitumour principles from Nigella sativa seeds. Cancer Letters 63(1): 41-46.

Tennekoon, K. H., S. Jeevathayaparan, et al. (1992). Evaluation of possible galactagogue activity of a selected group of Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka 20(1): 33-41. {a} Dep. Physiol., Fac. Med., Univ. Colombo, Colombo

Vohora, S. B. and P. C. Dandiya (1992). Herbal analgesic drugs. Fitoterapia 63(3): 195-207.

Akhtar, M. S. and I. Javed (1991). Efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seeds against Moniezia infection in sheep. Indian Veterinary Journal 68(8): 726-729.

Das, J. L., A. K. Dutta, et al. (1991). PH dependence of protease (S?) and amylase activity and amylase isozymes in control and mutant lines of Nigella sativa L. Bangladesh Journal Of Botany 20(2): 117-124.

Hanafy, M. S. M. and M. E. Hatem (1991). Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). Journal Of Ethnopharmacology 34(2-3): 275-278.

Nair, S. C., M. J. Salomi, et al. (1991). Modulatory effects of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice. Journal Of Ethnopharmacology 31(1): 75-84.

Tennekoon, K. H., S. Jeevathayaparan, et al. (1991). Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. Journal Of Ethnopharmacology 31(3): 283-290.

Agarwal, C., A. Narula, et al. (1990). Effect of seeds of “kalaunji” (Nigella sativa L.) on the fertility and sialic acid content of the reproductive organs of the male rat. Geobios 17(5-6): 269-272.

Siddiqui, T. O., H. A. Kan, et al. (1990). Probable role of trace elements of some medicinal plants in cardiovascular diseases. Acta Manilana 38: 19-24.

Ustun, G., L. Kent, et al. (1990). Investigation of the technological properties of Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed oil. Journal Of The American Oil Chemists’ Society 67(12): 958-960.

Akgul, A. (1989). Antimicrobial activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil. Gazi Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi 6(1): 63-68.

Hasan, C. M., M. Ahsan, et al. (1989). In vitro antibacterial screening of the oils of Nigella sativa seeds. Bangladesh Journal Of Botany 18(2): 171-174.

Islam, S. K. N., M. Ahsan, et al. (1989). Antifungal activities of the oils of Nigella sativa seeds. Pakistan Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(1): 25-28.

Kumar, B. H. and S. S. Thakur (1989). Effect of certain non-edible seed oils on growth regulation in Dysdercus similis (F). Journal Of Animal Morphology And Physiology 36(2): 209-218.

Ansari, A. A., S. Hassan, et al. (1988). Structural studies on a saponin isolated from Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry 27(12): 3977-3979.

Siddiqui, M. B., M. M. Alam, et al. (1988). Ethno-medical study of plants used for terminating pregnancy. Fitoterapia 59(3): 250-252.

Al, A. F. M. and K. Gumaa (1987). Studies on the activity of individual plants of an antidiabetic plant mixture. Acta Diabetologica Latina 24(1): 37-42.

Datta, A. K., J. L. Das, et al. (1987). Electrophoretic characterization and evaluation of proteins in control and mutant lines of Nigella sativa L. Cytologia 52(2): 317-322.

Menounos, P., K. Staphylakis, et al. (1986). The sterols of Nigella sativa seed oil. Phytochemistry 25(3): 761-763.

Saxena, A. P. and K. M. Vyas (1986). Antimicrobial activity of seeds of some ethnomedicinal plants. Journal Of Economic And Taxonomic Botany 8(2): 291-300.

Atta, U. R., S. Malik, et al. (1985). Nigellimine-N-oxide: A new isoquinoline alkaloid from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Heterocycles 23(4): 953-956.

Corneanu, G. C., V. D. Simeanu, et al. (1985). Chorologic, karyologic and anatomical studies on Nigella genus (family Ranunculaceae) in Romania. Revue Roumaine De Biologie Serie De Biologie Vegetale 30(2): 89-100.

Datta, A. K. and A. K. Biswas (1985). Induced mutagenesis in Nigella sativa. Cytologia 50(3): 545-562.

Namba, T., M. Tsunezuka, et al. (1985). Studies on dental caries prevention by traditional medicines: Part VII. Screening of ayurvedic medicines for anti-plaque action. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 39(2): 146-153.

Datta, A. K. and A. K. Biswas (1984). Cytomixis and a trisomic in Nigella sativa. Cytologia 49(2): 437-446.

Datta, A. K., A. K. Biswas, et al. (1983). Chromosomal variations in callus tissues of 2 species of Nigella. Nucleus 26(3): 173-177.

Singh, R. P. (1983). Search for antifeedants in some botanicals for desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Zeitschrift Fuer Angewandte Entomologie 96(3): 316-319.

Aqel, M. B. The relaxing effect of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on vascular smooth muscle. Dirasat Series B Pure and Applied Sciences 19(2): 91-100. Dep. Anatomy, Fac. Med., Univ. Jordan,, Amman, Jordan
Aqel, M. B. The calcium antagonistic effect of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds. Dirasat Series B Pure and Applied Sciences 19(1): 119-133. Dep. Anat., Fac. Med., Anat./Smooth Muscles, Univ. Aiwa, USA

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